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About  Laboratory Animals Limited

LAL is a registered charity whose aims are to promote education and training in laboratory animal science, medicine, technology and welfare. LAL is dedicated to the furtherance of all aspects of education and training in laboratory animal science, with the aim of improving scientific quality and animal welfare. There is focus on the 3Rs: Replacement, Reduction and Refinement.

Laboratory Animals Journal (LAN in the Bibliographic Databases) – The International journal of Laboratory Animal Science, Medicine and Welfare.

LAL publishes the major European peer-reviewed laboratory animal science Journal, Laboratory Animals, through the publishing house SAGE ( This international journal of laboratory animal science and welfare publishes original papers and reviews on all aspects of the use of animals in biomedical research. The Journal is the major source of income for LAL charitable activities.

The Journal has been adopted by the UK, French, German, Dutch, Israeli, Swiss, Spanish and Portuguese Laboratory Animal Science Associations as their official journal. It is also the official journal of FELASA (Federation of European Laboratory Animal Science Associations), ESLAV (European Society of Laboratory Animal Veterinarians) and ECLAM (European College of Laboratory Animal Medicine). For further information on the Journal see


Laboratory Animals Limited [LAL] is a registered charity dedicated to the advancement of all aspects of laboratory animal science, medicine, technology and welfare.

This is achieved through supporting education and training, including the publication of a scholarly journal and other educational materials, and by awarding funding to groups and individuals for initiatives aimed at enhancing education and training.

Through its support of education and training, LAL aims to improve animal welfare and scientific quality and to further adherence to the principles of the “3Rs”.


Laboratory Animals Limited’s [LAL] vision is to bring to the global scientific community a portfolio of high quality information on the 3Rs (ReplacementReductionRefinement ) which are the central focus of animal experimentation today.


Laboratory Animals Limited [LAL] considers that the use of laboratory animals is still necessary in scientific and medical research. The humane and responsible care of laboratory animals is vital to quality research. LAL is dedicated to disseminating a knowledge base in laboratory animal science for the education and training of those who work in this field.

The principles of the 3R’s

The Three Rs (3Rs) in relation to science are guiding principles for more ethical use of animals in testing. They were first described by W. M. S. Russell and R. L. Burch in 1959.

Replace animals where there is an alternative; Reduce animal numbers to the minimum necessary to achieve the objective and Refine procedures to cause the minimum of harm.


Replacement – Reduction – Refinement

Russell & Burch launched the idea of the 3Rs in their book The Principles of Humane Experimental Technique in 1959. It was not until the 1970s that the interest in this book and the 3Rs started to grow. The 3Rs have now become world famous and are the central focus of laboratory animal science today.

Replacement refers to scientific research in which live animals are no longer necessary, including computer simulation models.

Reduction refers to reducing the numbers of animals necessary in scientific research, for example through the application of improved statistical techniques.

Refinement covers not only improvements in experimental techniques, but also improvements in animal welfare – environmental enrichment is a good example of this. It is the challenge of  today’s laboratory animal scientists and technologists to research, implement and fully integrate the 3Rs effectively into medical and biomedical research.


Laboratory Animals Limited
P O Box 373, Eye
IP22 9BS


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